Diabetes, also called diabetes mellitus, defines a set of metabolic disorders where an individual has high blood sugar, either because of insulin depletion, or the body’s cells do not respond accurately to insulin or both. Diabetic patients with high blood sugar level will normally face polyuria (recurrent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased craving for food). If diabetes is left unmanaged, then it may cause acute complications like ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death and certain severe complications including chronic renal impairment, severe cardiovascular ailments, and diabetic retinopathy.
Know about the most common types of Diabetes:
Types 1 diabetes: Patients can suffer from types 1 diabetes mellitus when their pancreas is not able to produce insulin. It is also called as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and juvenile diabetes. The main reason for the occurrence of types 1 diabetes is the loss of beta cells from the islets of Langerhans due to T cell-mediated autoimmune attack.
Types 2 diabetes: Patients can suffer from types 2 diabetes mellitus when their body gets resistant towards the use of insulin or beta-cells secretes inadequate amount of insulin. It is the most type of diabetes and known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
Gestational diabetes: It bears a resemblance to types 2 diabetes mellitus in more than a few respects, involving a blend of comparatively insufficient insulin secretion and responsiveness. Gestational diabetes generally develops in some women when they are pregnant and it goes away after the birth of a child.
How common is diabetes? Who is more likely to suffer from Diabetes?
According to recent studies made by WHO, it is estimated that the cases of diabetes have risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. In the year 2015, an expected 1.6 million deaths were
Directly caused by diabetes. Nowadays, diabetes affects 1 in 4 people over the age of 65 and majority of them suffer from types 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes occurrence has been rising more speedily in middle- and low-income nations. People of age 45 years or more have a family record of diabetes or obesity is more likely to suffer from type 2 diabetes. Sedentary lifestyleand certain health troubles like hypertension can also affect your chance of developing type 2 diabetes.
Health complications can develop in people with diabetes:
Almost all form of diabetes can develop the risk of long-term complications in patients. The foremost long-term complications relate to damage to blood vessels that augment the risk of cardiovascular disorders like acoronary artery, stroke, etc. Some diabetic patients may suffer from diabetic retinopathy that is caused by damage to blood vessels in the retina of the eye resulting in the in gradual vision loss and blindness. Diabetes may also cause people to face diabetic nephropathy, which can cause them to face tissue scarring, urine protein loss, and ultimately chronic kidney disorder. Diabetic neuropathy is a most common complication of diabetes; it causes the damage of nerves of the body and its symptoms include numbness, tingling, pain, and altered pain sensation. Other medical complications associated with diabetes like muscle atrophy, diabetic foot ulcers, etc.
Management of diabetes:
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, so the management of diabetes concentrates on keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal, without causing low blood sugar. The maintenance of normal blood sugar level is possible with a healthy diet, exercise, weight loss, and use of appropriate anti-diabetic drugs.
Treatment for Types 1 diabetes:
In Type I diabetes, thebody does not produce any insulin, so insulin injection is utilized in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Injected insulin acts in the body just like naturally occurring insulin to lower high blood glucose level to normal.
Treatment for Types 2 diabetes
In Types 2 diabetes, thebody is resistant towards insulin or not producing enough amount of Insulin, so here oral hypoglycemic drugs work in numerous ways to diminish the raised blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Some oral hypoglycemic drugsstimulate insulin secretion by beta cells of the pancreas, or otheroral hypoglycemic drugs improve the sensitivity of cells to insulin or stop glucose creation by the liver. Here is alist of certain oral anti-diabetic drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus:
- Biguanides: Metformin, Phenformin
- Thiazolidinediones: Rosiglitazone, Pioglitazone, Troglitazone
- Sulfonylureas: Tolbutamide, Acetohexamide, Tolazamide, Chlorpropamide, Glipizide, Glibenclamide, Glimepiride, Gliclazide, Glyclopyramide, Gliquidone
- Meglitinides: Repaglinide, Nateglinide
- Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors: Miglitol, Acarbose, Voglibose
- Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors: Vildagliptin, Sitagliptin, Saxagliptin, Linagliptin
Basic guidelines to diminish the burden of diabetes:
Healthy lifestyle practices can be effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes. To help avert type 2 diabetes and its complications, people should follow these instructions:
- Accomplish and maintain healthy body weight
- People should remain physically active and for this, they should do regular, moderate-intensity activity on most days.
- Eat a healthy and balanced diet, avoiding high sugar and saturated fats containing foods.
- Avoid the use of tobacco, as it the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular ailments.