There are many diseases of the respiratory system. One of them is asthma. This serious common ailment, affecting the respiratory tract, leads to suffocation. The disease has several varieties, accompanied by severe symptoms. If there is no timely treatment, serious complications are likely to occur. Therefore, quality and effective therapy is needed.
What it is?
Asthma is a chronic illness manifested in the form of short-term attacks of suffocation. This is due to spasms in the bronchi and mucosal edema. There
is no specific risk group and age range. But in practice, women are sick 2 times more often.
For today, asthma is a disease that affects more than 300 million people in the world. The first signs are usually manifested in childhood. Elderly, the disease is more difficult to tolerate. At any age, effective treatment of asthma is necessary. In this case, the doctor must appoint him after the diagnosis.
Symptoms of asthma
What are the symptoms of asthma in adults and children? The initial stage is characterized by the appearance of:
- cough – dry or with phlegm;
- shortness of breath;
- drawing the skin between the ribs at the time of inspiration;
- surface respiration, improved after physical activity;
- almost constant dry cough for no apparent reason.
With the development of the disease and with the attack itself, the situation can change. Then the signs of asthma include the appearance:
- pain in the chest;
- rapid breathing;
- increased sweating;
- bloating of veins on the neck;
- unstable pressure;
- wheezing and chest tightness;
- drowsiness or confusion.
Sometimes there is a short-term stop of breathing. Usually, the patient manifests several symptoms. In case of an attack, urgent help is needed to prevent deterioration of the condition.
Types of asthma
In the medical field, there are 2 types of asthma:
- bronchial infectious and non-infectious – is considered the most common;
Bronchial asthma is divided into:
- stress asthma;
Each type of ailment has its own symptoms. Treatment is also different. But in any case, all the diseases give a person noticeable discomfort, so effective therapy is needed. It must be carried out under the supervision of a specialist and with the observance of his recommendations. Only then a positive result is expected.
For today there are 4 stages of bronchial asthma:
- mild persistent;
- of moderate severity;
- severe persistent.
The treatment of asthma in adults and children at the initial stage will be effective and not harmful to health. The causes of this ailment can be a prolonged contact with the allergen. Usually, when the irritant is eliminated and effective medications are taken, the symptoms of bronchial asthma are eliminated.
At the last stage there is a danger to human life. If the patient does not provide professional medical care in a timely manner, this can lead to death.
Symptoms and treatment of bronchial asthma are interrelated. When appointing a method of therapy, the doctor must determine at what stage the ailment is:
- Attacks appear no more than 2 times a week. At night, this happens no more than 1 time per month. The exacerbations are usually short.
- Symptoms are noticeable no more than 1 time per day. Nocturnal seizures can happen 3-4 times a month. There is insomnia and changes in blood pressure.
- Attacks can disturb daily, often the disease manifests itself at night. Asthma affects the life of a person.
- Attacks occur every day several times. There is insomnia, frequent choking at night. The patient has a limited way of life. At this time the patient needs immediate medical attention.
During the diagnostic activities, probable causes are determined, the anamnesis is personal and family. Then the patient must undergo instrumental diagnostics.
Confirmation of bronchial asthma is performed with the help of:
- spirometry – lung test;
- pikfloumetrii – determination of air speed;
- chest x-ray; tests for allergy;
- test for the concentration of air oxide.
From the laboratory tests, a doctor can be assigned a blood test. This will assess the overall condition of the patient.
Confirm the development of cardiac asthma will result in the following diagnostic methods:
- Ultrasound of the heart.
- Doppler of the heart.
Only according to the received data the doctor diagnoses. Based on this, appropriate treatment is prescribed. Such diagnostics must pass to adults and children.
First Aid in Case of Asthma Attack
Asthmatic attacks are the main symptom of this disease. And relatives of a person with a disease should know what to do to stop an attack of bronchial
asthma. This condition is diagnosed in the patient according to the following manifestations:
Signs of an attack of bronchial asthma
- A person assumes a position in which the musculature is included in the respiratory process. To do this, he puts his feet on the width of his shoulders, and his hands rest on the edge of the bed or chair.
- The breath is fast, and the exhalation is long and painful, accompanied by a cough.
- During exhalation a strong whistle is heard.
- The skin takes a cyanotic shade and becomes cool.
- Cough is severe and severe.
What to do if you have asthma attacks?
- Provide the patient with fresh air. It is better that he took the position sitting, it will facilitate the departure of phlegm during a cough.
- It is necessary to unbutton the clothes so that there is no pressure on the chest.
- The patient must always give an inhaler .
- It is necessary to remove allergens, which can provoke an increase in the attack.
- The patient needs to drink a sedative (karapolol, valerian). It is necessary to take bronhorasshiruyuschie aerosol drugs, which are in the first-aid kit of asthmatics.
- If the situation is serious, then it is worth calling an ambulance. At the average condition it is possible to address to the attending physician.
- In the absence of improvements, physicians resort to infusion of steroid drugs.
- The rules for assisting with an asthma attack must be known to the relatives and close people of the patient, in order to help at the right time.
Treatment of Asthma
Unfortunately, it is currently impossible to cure this disease. Throughout life, a person with this diagnosis must comply with and fulfill the prescription of doctors.
Methods of treatment of an asthmatic attack
- Treatment of bronchial asthma in adults includes the removal of seizures and the prevention of their occurrence again.
- Medications of anti-inflammatory, antihistamine.
- Bronchodilators, which expand the bronchi to improve air patency. All medicines must be prescribed by a doctor.
- Breathing exercises are also necessary, it helps to remove acute inflammation of the bronchi.
- To treat asthma use and folk remedies. However, before this, it is worth consulting with your doctor.
- To improve the condition with a cardiac form, correction of cardiac diseases is necessary. Asthma is a chronic pathology, therefore therapy lasts a lifetime. With the observance of medical recommendations, the quality of life suffers insignificantly.
Preventive measures as such to protect against the disease there. But there is an opportunity to reduce the number of attacks. To do this, you must follow simple rules:
- Requires regular wet cleaning of housing without the use of aromatic detergents.
- It is important that the bookcases are closed.
- If pets are present, disinfection must be carried out.
- Bed linen should not have feathers, fluff.
- It is advisable to choose synthetic accessories.
- There should be as few fabrics and curtains as possible in the room.
- At hand, you need to keep an inhaler that will stop the attack.
- It is necessary to treat timely infectious and non-infectious ailments.
Compliance with these rules reduces the frequency of seizures and makes life easier. But this way of life a patient with asthma should lead all the time.